Cross cultural psychology and cultural psychology are two fields of psychology that are often confused. Cross-cultural psychology and cultural psychology have many similarities and they differ in a few areas. Cross-cultural psychology is a comparative field of psychology that studies the cultural effects on human psychology.
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A cross-cultural study draws. It is primarily split into two parts, first part being Childhood and adolescence and second part being Adulthood. This chapter examines cross-cultural variations in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. After a discussion of cultural notions of childhood and adolescence they present evidence on how childhood experiences can describe cross-cultural. The approach focuses on the.
Cross Cultural Psychology
Unit 13 Signature Assignment Cross-cultural psychology involves the examination of relationships between cultural context and human behavior Berry, Poortinga, Breugelmans, Chasiotis and Sam, , p. Research in the area of cross-cultural psychology is aimed at comparing specific covert and overt behaviors of two or more cultures. Two psychology coursework that helped me at NVAFS head start school this semester were abnormal psychology and cross-cultural psychology.
I was able to meet a 5 year old child who was being observed because the school psychologist believes he might have a learning disability and have ADHD. With the abnormal psychology I was able to see the symptoms he was. There are many different branches and fields of psychology. He has also worked as a professional director, producer, writer and actor in motion pictures, television and stage.
He received an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Performance in a Network Television Series, and he was a guest star on the television series "Cheers," where he portrayed the leader of Frasier's low self-esteem group. Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology 2. Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology 3.
Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research 4. Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness 5. Intelligence 6.
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However, many researches believe that the FFM is a universal structure and can be used within cross-cultural research and research studies in general. However, other cultures may include even more significant traits that go beyond those traits included in the FFM. Researchers have often wondered whether people across various cultures interpret emotions in similar ways. In the field of cross-cultural psychology, Paul Ekman has conducted research examining judgments in facial expression cross-culturally.
One of his studies included participants from ten different cultures who were required to indicate emotions and the intensity of each emotion based upon picture of persons expressing various emotions. The results of the study showed that there was agreement across cultures as to which emotions were the most and second most intense.
Nevertheless, it is also important to note that in the study there were differences in the way in which participants across cultures rated emotion intensity. While there are said to be universally recognized facial expressions, Yueqin Huang and his colleagues performed research that looked at how a culture may apply different labels to certain expressions of emotions.
Huang et al. They found that the Chinese participants were not as skilled as the American participants at perceiving the universal emotional expressions of people coming from a culture different than their own. Also, because every culture has different values and norms, it is important to analyze those differences in order to gain a better understanding as to why certain emotions are either interpreted differently or not at all.
For example, as Huang et al. This important information may be critical in recognizing the cross-cultural difference between Asian and American judgments of the universal emotional expressions. Trnka et al. The term "subjective well-being" is frequently used throughout psychology research and is made up of three main parts: 1 life satisfaction a cognitive evaluation of one's overall life , 2 the presence of positive emotional experiences, and 3 the absence of negative emotional experiences. For example, Brazilians have been shown in studies to find positive emotions very desirable whereas the Chinese did not score as highly on the desire for positive emotions.
It is difficult to identify a universal indicator as to how much subjective well-being individuals in different societies experience over a period of time. Diener, Diener, and Diener, , noted that individualist cultural members are found to be happier than collectivist cultural members. One factor that may contribute to this debate is that nations that are economically stable may also contain various non-materialistic features such as a more stable democratic government, better enforcement of human rights, etc.
Therefore, it has yet to be determined whether a higher level of subjective well-being is linked to material affluence or whether it is shaped by other features that wealthy societies often possess and that may serve as intermediate links between affluence and well-being. Grossmann et al. Specifically, the paper examines aging-related differences in wise reasoning among the American and Japanese cultures.
Participants' responses revealed that wisdom e.
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Furthermore, younger and middle-aged Japanese participants illustrated higher scores than Americans for resolving group conflicts. The Japanese are motivated to maintain interpersonal harmony and avoid conflict, resolve conflict better, and are wiser earlier in their lives. Americans experience conflict gradually, which results in continuous learning about how to solve conflict and increased wisdom in their later years. The current study supported the concept that varying cultures use different methods to resolve conflict. Differences in conflict resolution across cultures can also be seen with the inclusion of a third party.
These differences can be found when a third party becomes involved and provides a solution to the conflict. A technique used by Korean-Americans may reflect Confucian values  while the American technique will be consistent with their individualistic and capitalistic views.
Americans will have more structure in their processes which provides standards for similar situations in the future.
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Contrary to American ways, Korean-Americans will not have as much structure in resolving their conflicts, but more flexibility while solving a problem. For Korean-Americans, the correct way may not always be set but can usually be narrowed down to a few possible solutions. Williams and Best have looked at different societies in terms of prevailing gender stereotypes, gender-linked self-perceptions, and gender roles. The authors found both universal similarities as well as differences between and within more than 30 nations.
One of the main findings overall was that under the topic of sex and gender, pan-cultural similarities were shown to be greater than cultural differences. This topic represents a specialized area of cross-cultural psychology and can be viewed as the study of cultural similarities and differences in developmental processes and their outcomes as expressed by behavior and mental processes in individuals and groups. As presented by Bornstein ,  Gielen and Roopnarine and Gardiner and Kosmitzki , researchers in this area have examined various topics and domains of psychology e.
Because only 3. Berry et al.